Venus at greatest elongation east

From: In-the-Sky.org


Venus will reach its greatest separation from the Sun in its 2021–2022 evening apparition. It will be shining brightly at mag -4.4.

From Nicosia , this apparition will not be one of the most prominent, reaching a peak altitude of 23° above the horizon at sunset on 7 Dec 2021.





2021–2022 evening apparition of Venus


26 Mar 2021 – Venus at superior solar conjunction

28 Oct 2021 – Venus at dichotomy

29 Oct 2021 – Venus at greatest elongation east

07 Dec 2021 – Venus at highest altitude in evening sky

07 Dec 2021 – Venus at greatest brightness

09 Jan 2022 – Venus at inferior solar conjunction


Observing Venus


Venus's orbit lies closer to the Sun than the Earth's, meaning it always appears close to the Sun and is lost in the Sun's glare much of the time.

It is observable for a few months each time it reaches greatest separation from the Sun – moments referred to as greatest elongation.

On these occasions, Venus is so bright and conspicuous that it becomes the third brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon. It is often called the morning star or the evening star.

These apparitions repeat roughly once every 1.6 years, taking place alternately in the morning and evening skies, depending whether Venus lies to the east of the Sun or to the west.

When it lies to the east, it rises and sets a short time after the Sun and is visible in early evening twilight. When it lies to the west of the Sun, it rises and sets a short time before the Sun and is visible shortly before sunrise.

At each apparition, Venus reaches a maximum separation from the Sun of around 48°. However, some times of the year are more favourable for viewing Venus than others. From Nicosia, it reaches a peak altitude of between 21° and 47° above the horizon at sunset during each evening apparition, depending on the time of year. During its 2021–2022 apparition, it will peak at 23° above the horizon at sunset on 7 Dec 2021.

This variability over the course of the year is due to the inclination of the ecliptic to the horizon.


The inclination of the ecliptic to the horizon

The inclination of the ecliptic to the horizon changes over the course of the year, affecting how high planets close to the Sun appear in the sky.

At all times, Venus lies close to a line across the sky called the ecliptic, which is shown in yellow in the planetarium above. This line traces the path that the Sun takes through the zodiacal constellations every year, and shows the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Since all the planets circle the Sun in almost exactly the same plane, it also closely follows the planes of the orbits of the other planets, too.

When Venus is widely separated from the Sun, it is separated from it along the line of the ecliptic. But, at different times of year, the ecliptic meets the horizon at different angles at sunset. This means that Venus appears at different altitudes above the horizon at different times of year, even if its separation from the Sun is the same.

If the ecliptic meets the horizon at a shallow angle, then Venus has to be very widely separated from the Sun to appear much above the horizon. Conversely, if the ecliptic is almost perpendicular to the horizon, Venus may appear much higher in the sky, even if it is actually much closer to the Sun.

At sunset, the ecliptic makes its steepest angle to the horizon at the spring equinox – in March in the northern hemisphere, and in September in the southern hemisphere. Conversely, it meets the horizon at its shallowest angle at the autumn equinox. Because the seasons are opposite in the northern and southern hemispheres, a good apparition of Venus in one hemisphere will usually be poorly placed in the other.

At sunrise, these dates are also inverted, so that for morning apparitions of Venus, the ecliptic makes its steepest angle to the horizon at the autumn equinox, and its shallowest angle to the horizon at the spring equinox.


The optimum time for an apparition of Venus


For this reason, the day when Venus reaches its widest separation from the Sun (greatest elongation) is not necessarily the same day when it appears highest in the sky at sunset. Venus typically appears highest in the sky a few days or weeks closer to the spring equinox than the moment of greatest elongation.

The inclination of the ecliptic plane to the horizon at Nicosia varies between 78° (sunset at the spring equinox) and 31° (sunset at the autumn equinox). On October 29, the ecliptic is inclined at 34° to the western sunset horizon, as shown by the yellow line in the planetarium above, meaning that this apparition of Venus will not be one of the most prominent, reaching a peak altitude of 23° above the horizon at sunset.


From: In-the-Sky.org

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